Drosophila melanogaster flies carrying the trp (transient receptor potential) mutation are rapidly blinded by bright light, because of the absence of a Ca2+-permeable ion channel in their photoreceptors. The identification of the trp gene and the search for homologs in yeast, flies, worms, zebrafish and mammals has led to the discovery of a large superfamily of related cation channels, named TRP channels. Activation of TRP channels is highly sensitive to a variety of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors that are essential in processes such as vision, taste, tactile sensation and hearing.
The vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) integrates responses to multiple stimuli, such as capsaicin, acid, heat, and endovanilloids and plays an important role in the transmission of inflammatory pain. Here, we report the identification and in vitro characterization of A-425619 [1-isoquinolin-5-yl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-urea], a novel, potent, and selective TRPV1 antagonist.
Primary short-lasting headaches broadly divide themselves into those associated with autonomic symptoms, so called trigemino-autonomic cephalgias (TACs), and those with little autonomic syndromes. The trigeminoautonomic cephalgias include cluster headache and paroxysmal hemicranias, in which head pain and cranial autonomic symptoms are prominent.
It has been suggested that histamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cluster headache. In addition, both neurogenic and vascular components have been described during cluster headache attacks without an obvious anatomical link between them. Our ultrastructural observations of human temporal arteries from cluster headache patients and their comparison to those from a control group strongly suggest that mast cells may be this link.